Geology of KZN

The geology of KZN records 3 500 million years of geological history. To find out more details about the geology of a specific stratigraphic unit or event click on one of the buttons below. For example, if you want to read more about the Zululand Group, select the orange button labelled Zululand Group below.

This map is simplified and modified from 1:1 000 000 scale geology map sheets (Geological Survey, 1984, Pretoria, Government Printer, NE & SE sheets). For a more detailed explanation of the local geology and more detailed maps contact the  Council for Geoscience.

Cross sections

Geological cross-section from Kranskop to Swaziland (top) and from the Drakensberg Escarpment to Durban (bottom)

Geological Timescale

Geological units in KZN are shown as coloured blocks indicating their relative age and corresponding period of the timescale. Also shown is their relationship to the evolution of organisms and major extinction events in Earth’s history. 

TimeScale_Zulu

Faulting and Uplift - Ukuklayeka nokuphakamiseka; ukudabuka kwe-Gondwana

KZN fault system

Schematic map of faults in KZN

Umsele omkhulu oseduze nogu laKwaZulu-Natal wanwebeka kwakheka ulwandle oluncane olufana noLwandle Olubomvu olutholakala manje. Eminyakeni eyizigidigidi lwaqhubeka lwavuleka kwaze kwakheka i-Indian Ocean (ulwandle olugudla i-Natal). Izinkomba zalokhu kuklayeka kukhonjiswa imiklayeko enqwabelene ogwini lakwaKZN. Omkhulu kunayo yonke owasoThukela oseluveze ukuntengantenga phakathi kwe-Kaapvaal Craton ne-Natal Metamorphic Province.

Evidence that Gondwana existed: distribution of fossils , matching mountain ranges and glaciation pattern.

Kimberlite - kodwa awekho amadayimane

Ekulandeleni kokuhlukana kwe-Gondwana, kwenzeka intabamlilo eyahlukileyo. Lokhu kwakha izintabamlilo zamatshe zama-kimberlite, ezaziwa ngokuba namadayimane. Ngebhadi, amapayipi e-kimberlite akwaKZN awakakhiqizi madayimane. Lokhu kwenziwa ukuthi ama-kimberlite adabuka ngaphansi kwe-Natal Metamorphic Province.

I-carbon iqina ukuze yakhe idayimane ekucindezelekeni okukhulu nokushisa okuncane – lezi zimo zitholakala kuphela ngaphansi kwe-Kaapvaal Craton, njengasenyakatho neLesotho.

GEM_KZNGeolkimber_h

Schematic map of Kimberlite pipe locations.

GEM_Kimberlitezulu

The schematic diagram shows the structure of a KZN kimberlite pipe, indicating the erosion levels in Lesotho and in KZN. 

Letseng Diamond Mine, Lesotho
Diamond, Letseng